On the Regions, a debate has been going on for some time that sees, on the one hand, the supporters of their complete abolition, and, on the other, the supporters of their greater functional and financial autonomy. It is a simplistic contrast, which lacks a fundamental assumption: to know the regional administrative machine and its performance, very different from one end of Italy to the other. The distance between North and South is not, unfortunately, a common place, just as it is not that between rich and poor Regions, with the former that are not always, however, the most virtuous. On those distances the statutory differentiation in force between the Italian regions does not seem to be decisive: those with the best qualitative rating, in fact, were not the autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano, north Valle d’Aosta, but Lombardia and Toscana. To avoid the yet another impromptu and approximate startup of institutional change, this time on Regions, it is necessary to stop and trace the complete and comparative radiography of the Italian Regions, not so much in terms of the policies undertaken, as to their budgetary, governance and personnel management capacity, quality of services provided, integrity of contracts. This is what this study does, through the Public Rating of performance, legality and transparency.