The Mediterranean is a heterogeneous region which includes a variety of countries, cultures, traditions as well as political evolution and experiences. The geopolitical and strategic importance of the Mediterranean goes beyond the regional borders and its dynamics have an impact on wider international contexts and global players’ interests. In 2011 the Arab uprisings marked a historic turning point for Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries, in particular for Arab nations. However even not-Arab states, such as Israel and Turkey, have been affected by widespread regional turmoil. The deep transformations traversing the Mediterranean region rise new challenges that overlap with old conflicts and crisis. What will be the outcomes of the political transitions in North Africa? How domestic and regional changes will affect politics, international relations and the balance of power in the Mediterranean space? What prospects for regional cooperation and integration?