“Innovation and Competitiveness in the Mediterranean Area” builds on a wide set of expertise and knowledge coming from a variety of fields. The volume seeks to describe the interactions of digital technologies and human development occurring in eleven countries of the Mediterranean basin, namely: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey. Despite the well-known regional and national socio-political challenges, these countries are filled with great potential and remarkable human capital. Within this framework, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Innovation are rapidly helping shaping the area into a more vibrant, dynamic and democratic place. A multi-layered investigation of ICT and key innovative factors that may drive future economic growth in the region is offered, with both country-level analysis and exploration of key regional trends that include e-government, innovation poles, and mobile and outsourcing services. Finally, the volume presents insights on the macroeconomic evolution of the area, and provides an assessment of trade intensity between Italy and the countries.